Connecting teens to literature, one of the many jobs of a youth services librarian, means meeting teens where they are––and they are online. Using social networking Web 2.0 technologies enables librarians to offer teens the services they want and need in an online environment, thus enhancing traditional teen services.
Connecting teens to reading has always been a goal of young adult librarians, and youth services librarians often function as intermediaries between teens and reading. Although many of these librarians believe that teens “just don’t read anymore,” research has proved this assumption false—teens do read. They may not be reading books, but they are reading.1 In fact, research shows that teens read constantly—text messages, e-mail, MySpace and Facebook, magazines, instant messages, websites, required school reading, and books. Even teens who say they are non-readers or do not like to read spend a great deal of each day actually reading.2 A role of the librarian thus becomes finding ways of connecting young adults and literature with the technology they immerse themselves in during their daily lives.
Libraries and librarians meet this challenge in a number of ways, both traditionally and by using Web 2.0 technologies. Aside from the typical teen book club, summer reading contests, teen library advisory boards, game nights, booktalks, and contests, librarians promote reading with library webpages; video book reUsingviews or book trailers; online book clubs or literature circles; Second Life and other 3D social worlds; blogs; book sharing sites such as Shelfari, Goodreads, or LibraryThing; RSS feeds and Tweeting; and, of course, social networking sites such as Facebook and MySpace. Each of these tools can be used to connect teens to YA literature.
With more young adults using the Internet rather than the library for research—both for school projects and personal information3—it becomes obvious that “if librarians want to attract young adults to their collections and services, they must become integral members of the online community. Furthermore, library webpages must address the needs of young adults on many levels—academic, social, and recreational.”4
While developing library webpages is relatively simple, getting teen “buy-in” to the site often proves difficult. It takes time to launch a site and even more time to keep it updated and maintained. Though some libraries use their teen advisory boards to help with this maintenance, more often the youth services librarian has responsibility for the site because many library administrators worry about teens adding unapproved or inappropriate content or accessing confidential library information such as circulation records.5
Many of these websites serve mainly informational purposes by promoting books and reading; providing homework help and reference services; announcing library events; giving links to community resources; and access to recreational activities such as games, music, and e-zines––but a large number of websites also provide space for teens to publish reviews, write, and interact with other teens.6 Designing teen-friendly websites that connect teens to YA literature involves more than just deciding what information to make available and providing ways for teens to publish and interact with each other. Teen users are discriminating and expect ease of use as well as useful information and an attractive design. If at all possible, teens should be involved with designing the website and choosing its content. Most library teen websites include reviews of books, book trailers, lists of new books, and links to different award winners. Some websites include an instant messaging feature with the teen services librarian staying logged on during work hours. Other websites link to blogs or a teen space on Facebook or MySpace where teens can discuss what they are reading. The following elements should be considered when designing youth webpages:
- Do not overload your page with graphics and image maps that do not contribute in some way to the information on the page.
- Organize the material on your page into logical, clearly marked sections.
- Annotate all the sites you include on the page, describing what the patron will find upon clicking the given link. Make sure the URL is posted so that the page can be printed for further reference.
- Link to your library’s subscription databases and provide extensive annotations for each source.
- Include local resources that a teen might not find anywhere else.
- Include information about upcoming programming or how teens can become involved with volunteering or on a teen advisory board.
- Create a place for teens to submit their own writing, including reviews of books, websites, video and computer games.7
The Allen County (Ind.) Public Library has a teen page that includes many ways of connecting teens with literature. Photos of new book titles link to the catalog and are further linked to LibraryThing for reviews and tagging. Patrons have a link to make their own comments and post reviews. The library also sponsors a Facebook page where teen patrons can post comments about books, movies, and library contests such as a Book Trailer Contest sponsored by the library. The teen interface is almost a cross between a blog and a typical webpage with links to other blogs included. Another example of an exemplary teen library webpage is at the Berkeley (Calif.) Public Library, which provides many avenues for teens to connect with YA literature. It has a well-developed blog with several discussion threads, including a place for teens to post reviews and comment on books. Tags also provide links to different book reviews and discussion threads. The teen homepage of the Columbus (Ohio) Metropolitan Library is graphic and well thought-out with links to homework help, a blog, games, fun things to do, book reviews, and book trailers. Teens must register for the interactive portions of the blog and the “Express It” page and sign an agreement to abide by the site use guidelines. Librarians are also available for scheduled live chats.
While many other libraries have well-developed teen pages that serve as gateways to connecting teens with literature, libraries, and each other, a recent review of U.S. public library teen webpages8 shows two common problems. Many of them have not been updated in days, weeks, or months––obviously a large deterrent to teen usage of these pages. Also, even the wonderfully well-designed, well-thought out, and up-to-date pages had few teens participating in the social networking venues––a problem that is much more difficult to overcome and highlights a crucial issue. Without active teen participation, libraries can have little success in using social networking tools to connect teens to YA literature.
Over the past few years, blogs have become easier to create and the number available on the Internet has skyrocketed. The blog entries, usually brief and arranged chronologically on the page, have a way for readers to comment on the postings, which may or may not involve registering or signing up in order to get a password to post comments. According to Adam Singer of The Future Buzz,9 60 percent of people ages 18 to 44 blog, and there are more than 200 million blogsavailable online. Because of the technological savvy of most teens, blogs can be an informal way of reaching teens and connecting them to books.
According to Braun, “Teens read blogs to keep up with topics of interest, including technology, world news, and gossip. They read blogs written by friends and favorite authors. This reading is a way to collect information, find out about the world, and learn how people think and live.”10 For many, reading blogs is very similar to reading magazines as far as the types of information they are interested in learning.11
More and more library teen pages include blogs.12 Most of these blogs include book reviews and other content to connect teens with books. Instead of or in addition to creating their own YA book blogs, libraries can link their websites to some of these preexisting resources.
One very attractive and active book blog created by teens is 3 Evil Cousins: Book Reviews 4 and by Teens. This blog includes the following mission statement:
Our Mission . . . or whatever. Hello and welcome to 3 Evil Cousins, where we plan to bring you reviews, interviews, and the occasional essay written by teens and for teens. Try out our new chat feature, let us know what you’re reading or what books you can’t wait for, and get in on our evil plot to make YA into the biggest section of the bookstore. Truly, yours! The Evil Ones.13
An outstanding teen blog site designed by adults but dedicated to having teens read and write reviews is Flamingnet Book Reviews. It was begun by Seth Cassal in 2002 when he was a fifth-grader and his father posted his reviews for him. Publishers began sending Cassal books to review and he enlisted other students to contribute. Now his reviewers come from forty-four states in the United States, as well as from England and Australia. Readers can post comments to any review, join community discussions on selected books, or become part of the blog’s Facebook community.
Jennifer Hubert’s Reading Rants: Out of the Ordinary Teen Booklists, an adult written blog about teen literature that also invite teens to participate, has been a web presence since 1998. In 2008, it became interactive with teens commenting on the reviewed books. The blog includes a link to other blogs.
Young adult authors have also discovered that blogs provide a way to reach teens. Many YA author blogs or websites simply contain contact information so that readers can send letters; however, a number of them are interactive with multiple ways for readers to connect with the authors. Laurie Halse Anderson has a blog where she shares her blog posts and enables teens to comment on them. Libba Bray’s blog uses an easy conversational style and highlights her personality with its repeated image of a red Converse tennis shoe. The blog contains links to YouTube videos and her Twitter page. As with most author blogs, it allows comments from fans, and most of her postings receive many comments. Scott Westerfeld, an author who has gone out of his way to make his blog connect to YA readers, not only has a forum for discussing, but has also instituted live meet-up sessions where readers can join him for chats. The blog includes links to his Facebook and Twitter pages.
Blogs rule as far as connecting teens to literature because most allow for participation in the reading, reviewing, and commenting process. Attractive blog design—as well as the popularity of the author and the topic––tends to be the key to connecting with teens. Providing links to excellent blogs benefits both the teen and the library as blogs promote literacy and writing skills while also promoting library resources.
Video Book Reviews and Book Trailers
As members of the YouTube generation, today’s teens are not only consumers of online videos but creators as well. Hundreds of millions of people both watch and post videos on YouTube and other sites such as TeacherTube. Video book trailers posted on these sites, as well as on library websites, blogs, author pages, and publisher websites are numerous. Many are professionally designed and are works of art, but many others have been created by teens for school assignments, contests, or just the love of a book.
The publisher-designed book trailers provide professionally produced book introductions. Usually narrated by the author of the featured selection, the artwork and quality are superb and can be found with a YouTube search by book title. The publisher websites provide links to some of the videos, but generally these trailers are easier to find through YouTube title searches. Some publishers, such as Simon & Schuster, have their own YouTube pages. Libraries can link their websites to these videos to promote featured and popular YA titles.
Typing in a book title on these sites yields trailers and reviews produced by both publishers and readers. While many are school assignments, many more show a teenager’s love for a book. Other sites such as Bookscreening.com and Booktrailers.net also provide venues for book trailers and these often link to YouTube videos. Mark Geary of Dakota State University has a webpage, Movies for Literacy, which has an extensive number of book trailers produced by students and featuring a range of YA titles, especially classics and required school reading. Schooltube.com provides a venue for safe posting of book trailers, although this site is rather cumbersome to wade through. Trailer Spy, a relative newcomer to the book trailer websites, offers a wide variety of trailers and commentary on young adult novels.
Librarians can foster teen participation in the creation of book trailers by providing a place to post videos and sponsoring contests with prizes and screenings. Other libraries embed YouTube videos in their websites or provide links to YouTube or other video site book trailers rather than having teens or library staff members create their own.
Online Book Clubs and Literature Circles
A book club or reading group is a collection of readers who participate in a regular discussion of books, usually an assigned title. Traditionally these clubs meet in a room with a small number of members. Moving book clubs to digital interfaces helps to meet teens where they are—online––and work similarly to online distance education classes. Members must enroll and everyone reads the same book. The moderator posts questions and discussion starters, and club members join for asynchronous discussion or for live chats. Online book clubs have several advantages over the traditional form, especially when the club has an asynchronous component and readers do not have to meet at a certain time. These clubs provide readers more of a chance to find a group tailored to special reading interests or genres because membership is not limited by physical location. On the other hand, participants miss the intimacy of face-to-face social interaction.
Various platforms exist for mounting online book clubs––websites, blogs, interfaces such as Yahoo! or Google groups, or e-mail discussion groups. Generally these groups are open to the public, and anyone can join. Libraries, though, tend to prefer “safer” online environments. Moodle is a popular, free, open-source software used to manage book clubs and discussion groups.
Because only registered user can access a Moodle-based book club environment, the book club leader can monitor membership and participation. The software allows for asynchronous discussions, synchronous or real-time chats, and profile spaces, and can be easily accessed from computers with Internet connections.14 Unlike other interfaces that allow book clubs more time for discussion to occur, Moodle users tend to limit the club to a certain period of time and a specific book.
Online book clubs take time to manage, especially if using an open web-based forum rather than a closed forum with limited access. The librarian must set up the interface, choose the book(s), and find participants. Book club discussions require frequent monitoring and the book club site needs to be kept current. The monitor or leader needs to be responsive and post frequently. Fostering additional ways for interaction also helps––places for participants to post reviews and suggest books for further discussion, as well as ways to take quizzes or answer discussion questions. An attractively designed interface is also important.
Many public libraries, such as the Pierce County (Wash.) Library System, offer an interesting adaptation of library book clubs. Starting on Monday, participants receive an e-mail with a five-minute segment of a book so that by the end of the week, two or three chapters have been distributed. The moderator invites guest hosts to share favorite books, but the forum does not allow for much discussion. These libraries use the subscription service DearReader as their book club interface. DearReader e-mails the same books to all of the participating libraries.
The San Jose (Calif.) Public Library uses LibraryThing as the interface for its teen library club. Teens join LibraryThing, post their books, and then join a discussion group forum that is open to any teen. Asynchronous in nature, it allows for the simultaneous discussion of several books.
Literature circles, while similar to book clubs or book discussion groups, tend to be part of an academic or classroom environment and are usually more structured and formal than book clubs. According to Hill, Noe, and Johnson:
In literature circles, small groups of students gather together to discuss a piece of literature in depth. The discussion is guided by students’ response to what they have read. You may hear talk about events and characters in the book, the author’s craft, or personal experiences related to the story. Literature circles provide a way for students to engage in critical thinking and reflection as they read, discuss, and respond to books. Collaboration is at the heart of this approach. Students reshape and add onto their understanding as they construct meaning with other readers. Finally, literature circles guide students to deeper understanding of what they read through structured discussion and extended written and artistic response.15
Many teachers and school districts are experimenting with the online environment for literature circles. The San Antonio (Tex.) Independent School District has a well-structured program of online literature circles with classes from across the United States joining and pairing up with similar classes. They use Moodle to host the circles because of child safety concerns. While traditional literature circles tend to be done through the classroom, this might be an additional or alternate way for public libraries to partner with schools.
Book-Sharing Social Networks
Book-sharing social networks are a relatively new addition to the Internet. LibraryThing began in 2005, and Shelfari and Goodreads launched in late 2006. These sites combine several social networking technologies. Besides creating a showcase for books, they allow for tagging, sharing, forming or joining groups, reviewing, and rating books. Many libraries use these social networking sites as a restricted platform for their book clubs, but there are also groups that anyone can join. Membership is free, and all three of these networks are easy to join.
While the three sites are similar, there are some differences. Goodreads purports to be the largest of the three with “more than 3,000,000 members who have added more than 80,000,000 books to their shelves.”16 It is relatively easy to navigate and offers authors a space to join and promote their books in the form of a Goodreads webpage and blog where readers can post comments. Authors such as Neil Gaiman, Sarah Dessen, Laurie Halse Anderson, and Tamora Pierce are some of the popular teen authors on Goodreads. The site provides several options for sorting author pages including popularity, books authored, last name, last online, or books on your personal shelf. Libraries or individuals can download a widget to link Goodreads to their library for ease in using this as a book club or book discussion site. Goodreads organizes groups by category to make it easier to view how other libraries have set up their groups. Groups can be either public or private.
Shelfari, similar to Goodreads, allows for shelving and sharing books. Forming new discussion groups is easy, but to join private groups, readers must be invited. A librarian could easily handle this by having a sign-up on the library webpage and then “inviting” interested participants. While authors do not have webpages, author profiles can be posted and edited in a wiki-style platform. Shelfari also has a blog to promote new books and good reading.
LibraryThing rivals Goodreads in size. It allows participants to catalog up to two hundred books for free, but it charges for any additional books. Unlike Goodreads and Shelfari, it has a “Zeitgeist” overview page with numerous interesting statistics about LibraryThing: largest “libraries,” most reviewed books, authors on LibraryThing, most popular tags, number of users, number of books reviewed, and so on. Readers can join the author pages, which will link them to profiles of fans and an author page provides links to the authors’ other websites and Twitter pages.
Libraries can use these book sharing social networking platforms in two ways. They can set up their own book clubs and link members to them through their library webpages or they can recommend existing groups for their teens to join. While all three sites have ways to search for groups, all are rather cumbersome to use, and users must join the site to sign up for a group.
Another use for these platforms would be to have teens use them to post their own reviews and bookshelves and to invite each other to be friends and share books. This way is less formal, but can be time consuming for the librarian who would monitor the posts. On the other hand, it can be done without having a librarian run the group.
Facebook, MySpace, and Nings
The use of social networking sites, such as Facebook and MySpace, has grown phenomenally over the past decade. Not only do individuals join and create personal homepages, libraries and other groups also construct their own pages. In early 2010, Facebook and MySpace still ranked as the top social networking sites,17 but hundreds of online social networks exist. Because Facebook and MySpace are the most popular—and because teens are so involved with using these sites—librarians, authors, and publishers often find they are tailor-made for reaching out to teens.
More so than the other social networking technologies, sites such as MySpace and Facebook offer a great deal of versatility, but they also raise more concerns. For one thing, both of these venues have a minimum age of thirteen in order to join and post a profile. Because the actual age of account holders cannot be monitored, many participants lie about their age and do not meet the minimum age requirement.18 The challenge thus becomes how to use these popular social networking technologies while not exposing young adults to anything dangerous.
The versatility of these sites—and the fact that there is no charge for use––makes them popular for connecting teens to literature. This can be accomplished in several ways. Many libraries have Facebook and MySpace pages to announce events, post titles of new book arrivals, and share reviews. People can sign up as fans, often without joining the networks. A large number of popular teen authors have a presence on both Facebook and MySpace. Readers can join as fans, but to receive status reports and posts, users need to be members of the sites. Readers can also search the sites by book titles and find discussion forums for specific titles as well as links to authors. Popular books such as Suzanne Collins’ Catching Fire and Stephenie Meyer’s Twilight have multiple discussions groups available. To join, though, you must be a member of the site. Both Facebook and MySpace enable any member to form a group. These groups can be made public or private, so a library can set up a discussion group just for invited members. A blog feature also adds ways for individuals or groups to have discussions.
As far as features available on the two sites, there is not a great deal of difference. MySpace has more blatant advertising and a more cluttered look than Facebook. MySpace also posts pictures on its homepage, many of which are overtly provocative and which may be off-putting to some parents who monitor their teens’ online activities. Facebook has a cleaner, simpler look, although it also has ads. MySpace allows for personalizing the homepage while Facebook has a generic format. Neither one is particularly easy to navigate when looking for an already organized group unless the name of the group is known. Librarians should explore the features of both before deciding which best fits their needs and should ask their teen patrons which platform they would prefer to use or already use.
Ning is an online platform for people to create their own social networks, and it competes with Facebook and MySpace for users who want to create their own special interest groups. Use of the site can be free or fee-based depending on whether the group wants to allow or control the advertisements that are part of the free group hosting. YA author John Green’s Nerdfighters is one of the largest groups on Ning. While aesthetically rather busy, group moderators or creators can control membership in Ning groups and can activate optional features such as an activity feed, RSS feeds, photos and videos, a chat feature, a discussion forum, invitations to new members, and blogs for every member. The main issue with Ning is that searching for groups with unknown names is difficult because no complete listing of the groups is provided.
As with other social networking applications, the main issues with Facebook, MySpace, and Ning use are time and attracting members. To be useful, a page needs to be updated regularly. Reaching young adult readers remains an issue. The library needs to make sure that not only is the group or page easy to access, but also that teens know that it is available so good PR becomes an important factor. Networking with school librarians, writing newsletter entries, posting on the main library webpage, advertising in local or school newspapers, and providing library signage in the areas where teens congregate can help spread the word.
Twitter and RSS
Twitter allows people to stay connected via short messages delivered in multiple ways: cell phones, the Web, and instant messages. Posts are limited to 140 characters. According to the Twitter website, the purpose of Twitter messages is to answer the question “what’s happening.” Members can choose whose messages they will receive. The site also has a blog to keep users updated about what the site team considers important, and it is not necessary to sign up for Twitter to access the blog. The site links to Google Blogger for those who want to create their own blogs. Widgets, buttons, and applications are available for mobile phones and websites.
Many YA authors tweet and fans can sign up for the service and receive updates from favorite authors. While the site provides a list of authors and publishers, a name search finds even more authors. Sarah Dessen, Libba Bray, Cory Doctorow, and John Green are among the authors who use Twitter. Libraries could easily use Twitter to send information about programming and new books to teens. A link from the library webpage can enable teens to sign up to use this service. The main drawback, though, is that Twitter seems to be more popular with adults than with teens. While teen usage has grown since the site began, according to the New York Times only about 11 percent of users are ages twelve to eighteen.19
Similarly, Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds provide a method to publish updated blog entries, headlines, videos, and so on in an easily accessible format. The feeds allow readers to subscribe to updates from popular websites and blogs. The user needs to download a reader or aggregator and then subscribe to a feed. This reader checks the user’s feeds regularly for new entries and downloads the entries by sending them to the user’s e-mail. For the webpage creator, enabling an RSS feed is also simple. Libraries can use RSS feeds to send subscribers updates on programming, new acquisitions, or reviews but the easily disseminated information may not attract users.
Avatars, Second Life, and other MUVEs
Second Life is a multi-user virtual environment (MUVE). While this technology has been around since 2003, most libraries have not adopted it as a form of building community or promoting reading. One exception is the Public Library of Charlotte and Mecklenburg (N.C.) (PLCM) which operated an island on Teen Second Life from 2006 to 2009 to “build community” in a technical environment and explore library services in a 3D space.20 However, the project ended in 2009 due to low patron participation.
While there are other less well-known MUVEs, Second Life has the advantage of having a separate space for teens ages thirteen to seventeen. All adults in Teen Second Life must pass a background check before being allowed on the “island” and cannot visit other islands on the teen grid.21 Once a person joins, he or she creates an avatar who then lives in the Second Life environment. While in regular Second Life universes, residents develop a persona and spend money for goods, land, and services, in creating a new life. PLCM used Second Life not only for role playing, but also as a programming venue and for soliciting teen input on programming. Ideas for use included bringing in teen authors to make presentations via Second Life and staffing a virtual reference desk.22
Library uses for this technology are still in their infancy, but librarians who have the money to purchase an island, or who can partner with an agency who will fund it, have the opportunity to provide creative programming that can further connect teens to libraries and literature.
Where Do We Go From Here?
Web 2.0 and social networking technologies definitely have a place in connecting teens to literature, but “If we build it, will they come?” The answer is a resounding “maybe.” Today’s teens are technologically savvy and use these technologies in a variety of ways. Websites, blogs, YouTube, and social networking sites such as MySpace and Facebook do support connecting teens to authors and literature, but they must be promoted, not just made available. While these are useful tools for librarians, without the personal connection of the library and the librarian to the teen patrons, they may not be successful in engaging teens. As a result, getting input from teens is essential to making successful use of these technologies for use in promoting YA literature.
The YA librarian needs to be a visible part of the use of these technologies so that the teens still feel that personal connection. Good design and frequent site updates are imperative. It is also necessary to meet the teens where they are — whether it is on a blog, a website, or a social network. Knowing the technologies teens use most frequently and using these as a guide to promote reading and literature is essential.
Gimmicks work. Teens like contests and winning prizes. Competitions for the best book trailer or blog entry are relatively easy to institute. Invite an author to join an online book group or book blog group for a chat. Many authors will do this for free as it does not involve travel. Have a book of the month promoted with a simple quiz that readers can take online; the winner of the random drawing from quiz takers gets a copy of the book.
Using social networking to promote books and reading to teens takes time and commitment as well as planning, but it can and does work. Most social networking technologies are free or inexpensive. Combining teens and their ideas, good books, interesting authors, and a creative librarian equals a recipe for success.
- Linda Braun, “Hotspot: LOL@yourlibrary,” Young Adult Library Services 5, no. 4 (Summer 2007): 38–40; Sandra Hughes-Hassell, “Developing a Leisure Reading Program that is Relevant and Responsive to the Lives of Urban Teenagers: Insights from Research” in Urban Teens in the Library, ed. Denise
E. Agosto and Sandra Hughes-Hassell (Chicago: ALA, 2010).
- Hughes-Hassell, “Developing a Leisure Reading Program that is Relevant and Responsive to the Lives of Urban Teenagers,” 1.
- June Abbas, Melanie Kimball, George D’Elia, and Kay G. Bishop, “Public Libraries, the Internet and Youth: Part 1—Internet Access and Youths’ Use of
the Public Library,” Public Libraries 46, no. 4 (July/Aug. 2007): 40–45.
- Sandra Hughes-Hassell and Ericka Thickman Miller, “Public Library Web Sites for Young Adults: Meeting the Needs of Today’s Teens Online,” Library & Information Science Research 25, no. 2 (Summer 2003): 143–56.
- Ibid., 150.
- Michelle Gorman, Tricia Suellentrop, and Patrick Jones, Connecting Young Adults and Libraries, 3rd ed. (New York: Neal Schuman, 2004), 279.
- Patrick Jones and Angela Pfeil, “Public Library YA Webpages for the Twenty-First Century,” Young Adult Library Services 2, no. 2 (Spring 2004): 14–18.
- Adam Singer, “70 Usable Stats from the 2009 State of the Blogosphere,” accessed Apr. 26, 2011, http://thefuturebuzz.com/2009/12/10/blogging-stats-acts-data.
- Braun, “Hotspot: LOL@yourlibrary,” 1.
- For a list of library blogs for teens, see www.libsuccess.org/index.php?title=Blogs_for_Teens. Any library hosting a blog for teens can post the link here.
- 3 Evil Cousins: Book Reviews 4 and by Teens, accessed May 11, 2011, www.3evilcousins.blogspot.com.
- Cassandra Scharber, “Online Book Clubs: Bridges Between Old and New Literacies Practices,” Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy 52, no. 5 (Feb.2009): 433–37.
- Bonnie Campbell, Katherine L. Schlick Noe, and Nancy J. Johnson, “Overview of Literature Circles,” accessed Apr. 26, 2011, www.litcircles.org/Overview/overview.html.
- Goodreads, “About Goodreads,” accessed May 11, 2011, www.goodreads.com/about/us.
- Mark Brooks, “Social Networking Watch,” accessed Apr. 26, 2011, www.socialnetworkingwatch.com/usa-social-networking-ran.html.
- Doug Gross, “Social Networks and Kids: How Young is Too Young?” CNN.com, accessed Apr. 26, 2011, http://cnn.com/2009/TECH/11/02/kids.social.networks/index.html.
- Claire Cain Miller, “Who’s Driving Twitter’s Popularity? Not Teens,” New York Times, Aug. 26, 2009, sec Technology.
- Kelly Czrnecki, “Building Community as a Library in a 3D Environment,” Australasian Public Library and Information Services 21, no. 1 (Mar. 2008): 25–27.
- Ibid., 25.
3 Evil Cousins: Book Reviews 4 and by Teens (www.3evilcousins.blogspot.com).
Allen County (Ind.) Public Library (http://acplteens.wordpress.com).
Laurie Halse Anderson’s blog (http://halseanderson.livejournal.com)
Berkeley Public Library (www.berkeleypubliclibrary.org/content)
Libba Bray’s blog (http://libba-bray.livejournal.com)
Columbus (Ohio) Metropolitan Library (http://teens.columbuslibrary.org)
Flamingnet Book Reviews (www.flamingnet.com)
The Future Buzz (http://thefuturebuzz.com/2009/12/10/blogging-stats-facts-data)
Mark Geary’s Movies for Literacy (www.homepages.dsu.edu/mgeary/booktrailers/adolescent.htm)
Jennifer Hubert’s Reading Rants: Out of the Ordinary Teen Booklists (www.readingrants.org)
LibraryThing discussion group forum (www.LibraryThing.com/groups/luv2read)
LibraryThing “Zeitgeist” overview page (www.librarything.com/zeitgeist)
Pierce County (Wash.) Library System (www.supportlibrary.com/su/su.cfm?x=204304&g=/su/banners/Pierce_OBC.jpg&cb=8EB3DD&cs=003C7F&qv)
San Antonio (Tex.) Independent School District(http://itls.saisd.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=78&Itemid=101)
San Jose (Calif.) Public Library (www.sjlibrary.org/gateways/teens/bookclub.htm)
Trailer Spy (www.trailerspy.com/trailers/basic/mr/327/Young-Adult)
Scott Westerfeld’s blog (http://scottwesterfeld.com/blog)